The most popular domestic power battery policy and

2022-07-31
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Domestic power battery policy and market promote technology upgrading

due to the strong policy externality of new energy electric vehicles, the government has become the first driving force of industrialization, but this is unsustainable, and must eventually embark on the track of self-development relying on the market. The market performance of power batteries under government subsidies does not reflect the real situation of the market

current situation of domestic power batteries

in the first October of this year, the total matching amount of power batteries for new energy vehicles reached 14.2 billion watt hours, of which the matching amount of pure electric vehicle power batteries exceeded 12.9 billion watt hours, accounting for 91%, and the matching amount of power batteries for plug-in hybrid vehicles was 1.3 billion watt hours, accounting for 9%. Lithium iron phosphate battery is still the main supporting battery. The supporting capacity reaches 10.1 billion watt hours, accounting for 71%. The supporting capacity of ternary lithium battery is only one third of that of lithium iron phosphate, which is 3.5 billion watt hours

in the first 10 months of this year, there were 118 single supporting enterprises for new energy vehicles, including 7 foreign enterprises and 111 domestic enterprises. The output of the top six battery supporting enterprises reached 8.1 billion watt hours, accounting for 57%, basically forming the leading role of leading enterprises

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at present, the catalogue of specifications for the automotive power battery industry has been published in four batches, a total of 99 enterprises have applied, and 57 enterprises have entered the catalogue. The production capacity of the enterprises in the catalogue has reached 37billion watt hours, of which the total production capacity of the top ten enterprises is 17.5 billion watt hours. BYD and catl are basically at full capacity or even over capacity. The output of other enterprises has not reached the maximum capacity

the technical route of electric vehicle power battery in China is divided into lithium battery and fuel cell, and the mainstream is still lithium battery. From the development status of power battery technology at home and abroad, the technical level of lithium-ion battery monomer developed at home is basically at the same level as that of foreign countries. China's power battery shipment has ranked among the world's leading ranks, but it needs to catch up in terms of product uniformity, system integration technology and production line automation. This gap is still narrowing

the key technology of power lithium battery is the research and development of cathode materials, which need to meet the requirements of high energy density, good cycle performance, safety and reliability; Porous materials have higher diaphragm technical barriers, which determine the interface structure and internal resistance of batteries. At present, they are mainly in the hands of Japanese and Korean enterprises; In terms of battery pack, the key technology is battery management system (BMS) technology. It is necessary to accurately detect, protect and control the battery system and maintain the communication between the vehicle and the battery

analyze the domestic power battery industry pattern

from the perspective of the total number of patent applications worldwide, the number of patent applications in the field of power battery and its management system in China is second only to Japan and the United States, ranking third. In terms of domestic patent applications in China, Japan has the largest number of patent applications in China, and Panasonic, Toyota, Sanyo and other well-known Japanese enterprises have a large number of high-quality patents in China. Among domestic enterprises, BYD has outstanding R & D strength in the field of power battery technology. By the end of 2015, BYD, China's power battery enterprise, had the largest number of battery material invention patents, reaching 120, which was basically at the same level as the well-known foreign LG Chemical and Samsung SDI

policies and markets promote technological upgrading

on November 22, the official of the Ministry of industry and information technology disclosed the standard conditions for automotive power battery industry (2017) (Draft for comments), To manage the power battery (devices configured and used on the vehicle, capable of storing and recharging electric energy, and providing energy for driving the vehicle, including lithium-ion power battery, nickel metal hydride power battery and supercapacitor, excluding lead-acid battery)

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the exposure draft has greatly raised the threshold of the capacity of lithium-ion power battery monomer enterprises. According to Article 8 of the exposure draft, "The annual output capacity of lithium-ion power battery single enterprises shall not be less than 8billion watt hours, that of nickel metal hydride power battery single enterprises shall not be less than 100million watt hours, and that of supercapacitor single enterprises shall not be less than 10million watt hours. The annual output capacity of system enterprises shall not be less than 80000 sets or 4billion watt hours. The annual output capacity of enterprises producing various types of power battery single enterprises and system enterprises shall meet the above requirements respectively."

previously, the annual capacity threshold of lithium-ion power battery monomer enterprises was set at 200million watt hours. The threshold was raised to 40 times of the original level, 8billion watt hours. After the threshold is raised, only a few domestic power battery enterprises can meet the standard. Industry insiders pointed out that only BYD and Ningde times have power enterprises with a capacity of 8billion watt hours in 2016

analyze the domestic power battery industry pattern

if this policy is implemented, it can be expected that the domestic lithium battery industry will begin to "polarize" and integrate, and the growth will mainly focus on enterprises with large capacity, large working capital and continuous technological progress, and speculators will face elimination. This will promote the research and development of domestic power lithium battery technology and industrialization technology, including the research and development of system integration technology

in terms of policy and market considerations, only by taking the road of large-scale and standardized production can the domestic power battery industry better ensure quality, reduce costs and improve safety. Only by building a rational production industrial pattern through several enterprises with high ranking, strong technical strength and high concentration, can China's power battery industry achieve long-term, stable and healthy development

the development of power batteries in China is facing problems

at present, China chooses the same lithium iron phosphate route as the United States, but the overall level of lithium battery technology still lags behind the United States and Japan. The average energy density of Japanese batteries is 30%-40% higher than the average level of China, and the charging times can reach several times that of China. The development of China's lithium-ion battery industry still needs to overcome the following problems

1. Patent

the anode material patent of lithium iron phosphate was obtained by goodenough team of the University of Texas in 1996. Canada H-Q and phostech have obtained their exclusive patents and commercial licenses. At present, modification and preparation technologies such as carbon deposition, metal oxide coating and nano technology have been developed successively to improve the conductivity of lithium iron phosphate powder and derive more patents. The patent problem is difficult for domestic manufacturing enterprises such as lithium iron phosphate to avoid

2. Manufacturing consistency

the lithium batteries used in electric vehicles are connected in series or in parallel. If the consistency problem is not effectively solved, the lithium batteries produced cannot be applied to electric vehicles on a large scale

3. Safety and life

large capacity lithium-ion power battery pack with high-power charge and discharge is more likely to cause deviation in a certain part of the battery under harsh service conditions, thus causing safety problems. The service life of single lithium iron phosphate battery can exceed 2000 times. However, after hundreds of single batteries are connected in series and in parallel, the service life of the whole battery pack may only be 500 times. The battery management system (BMS) must be used to reasonably and effectively manage and control the battery pack. The horizontal host with frame structure, servo motor, ball screw, high-precision load sensor and special stretching fixture are adopted

4. High energy and high power compatible

lithium ion power battery can be adjusted through belt pulley; The high energy density can make the electric vehicle run at a constant speed for a longer time, but there are some problems such as insufficient power during starting and slow starting acceleration. In the electrochemical system, only supercapacitors can obtain very high charge discharge ratio, but their energy density is only 1/20 of that of lithium batteries. Without super capacitor, there is no ideal high-capacity and high-power power battery

5. Screening of raw materials

at present, it is impossible to import all the raw materials used in the production of lithium batteries, mainly from China. However, the domestic raw materials must pass the international certification, and the lithium battery produced can be recognized internationally. Therefore, some problems in the raw material certification need to be solved at present

some suggestions:

1 Safety first

all batteries are dangerous goods. What we fear most is battery thermal runaway, pressure relief, fire and explosion. All aspects of the power battery, including design and verification, should start with safety and must not be ambiguous. Power battery usually includes four levels: single cell, battery pack, battery pack and battery system. Each level has its own characteristics and safety requirements. To do a good job in battery safety, it is necessary to divide the design level into four levels for strict design, verification and control, and do a good job in safety management at each level

2. Talent cultivation

talents are the core competitiveness of enterprises. We should cultivate and introduce international talents from a global perspective to the direction of internationalization. Formulate incentive policies and distribution incentive mechanisms to vigorously stimulate talents' innovation and creativity

3. Industry university research collaborative innovation

power battery system involves many disciplines, including materials, chemistry, machinery, thermodynamics, heat transfer, hydrodynamics, electricity, systems and control. Its key technologies include battery pack technology, thermal management technology, power management technology and safety management technology

due to the dispersion of R & D forces, China's power battery industry still lacks internationally competitive enterprises and industrial clusters, especially in the field of ternary lithium batteries, which is still in the stage of accelerated catch-up. Only based on in-depth analysis, understanding, innovation and cooperation, can we have the opportunity to make higher performance lithium-ion power batteries safe for users. This requires the integration of multi-disciplinary and multi field production, learning and research units to carry out cooperative exploration and breakthrough in material development, battery design, production and manufacturing, system integration, business model and other aspects

4. Taking the road of marketization

due to the strong policy externalities of new energy electric vehicles, the government has become the first driving force of industrialization, but this is unsustainable and must eventually embark on the track of self-development relying on the market. The market performance of power batteries under government subsidies does not reflect the real situation of the market. Once the government subsidy is withdrawn, it will return to the original point. In the medium and long term, the primary factor determining the development of China's power batteries is not the rapidly expanding production capacity investment today, but the continuous accumulation of technological breakthroughs and the growing product competitiveness

5. Global layout

Japanese and Korean enterprises are generally distributed globally to better serve local automotive enterprises. For example, Panasonic has built a super battery factory with Tesla in the United States, LG has also established factories in the United States and China, and their R & D institutions are all over the world

on the road of internationalization, domestic enterprises are far behind Japan and South Korea. Apart from some project cooperation between catl and BMW and other foreign automobile enterprises, there are few successful cases of domestic enterprises going out, and they can not enter the supply chain system of international mainstream automobile enterprises

summary: new energy electric vehicles have very strict requirements for power batteries. The core of cutting-edge competition is technology competition. We should be willing to invest in research and development. Only by making breakthroughs in technology can we take the initiative in the competition. It is hoped that domestic enterprises will take the development of power batteries as a long-term strategy and abandon the free rider mentality

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